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Methods : Two hundred hijras were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling and interviewed by a team of experienced interviewers. : The mean age of the respondents was More than two third Eight percent had sex with a woman during the last year.
During the last one month, five hijras had paid women to have vaginal sex. Nineteen hijras paid another man to have sex with them. Only Majority of the hijras However knowledge about its mode of transmission was faulty. Introduction The word "hijra" is an Urdu word meaning eunuch or hermaphrodite. Eunuchs - castrated males - have been in existence since the 9th Century BC. The word Eunuch has been derived from a Greek word meaning "keeper of the bed" because castrated men were in popular demand to guard royal harems. The practice is believed to have started in China, where at the end of the Ming dynasty, there were as many as 70, eunuchs in the grand palace.
The Hijras — men who dress and act like women — have been a presence in India for generations. Within South Asian society, they maintain a third-gender role that has become institutionalized through tradition. Numerous references to eunuchs in the royal courts of India's Muslim rulers are cited.
Hijras in Indopak draw their cultural heritage from the Khawjasara of Mughal era. Khawjasaras were eunuchs or hermaphrodites, who were employed by Mughal rulers as care-takers of their harems.
Khawjasaras played potent roles in the courts, held effective sway in the affairs of the state, and also acted as confidants of their masters. They typically live together in the traditional commune arrangement of five or more "chelas" disciplessupervised by a "guru. Each house has its own history and rules of behaviour. She receives training in singing, dancing, and other activities to enable her to earn a livelihood. Chelas are expected to turn their earnings over to the guru, who manages the funds for household upkeep.
Gurus are expected to meet chelas' needs for food, clothing, and pocket allowance. Sources of livelihood include performing at marriage and birth celebrations, begging for alms and prostitution.
This has resulted in perpetuation of harmful practices. Even the of Hijras is controversial. The social assessment and mapping of men, who have sex with men MSM in Lahore, conducted during by Khan and Khilji,10 reveals an estimates of 25, zennanas i.
The sample size was calculated through Epi-Info 3. The estimated sample size was Since random sampling was not possible, a de effect of 2 was added and a sample size of was fixed for the study. The data was collected by two teams of interviewers. Each team comprised of 2 interviewers and one supervisor. The teams were provided with transport and communication facilities. The team members received training on the questionnaire of the study.
Hijras were recruited through RDS. Each respondent was explained the purpose of the study and all his concerns were addressed. The confidentiality of all information was assured. Those, who finally agreed to participate, were asked to give informed consent.
The respondents were brought to a central place through the transport at the disposal of the team.
The interviews were conducted in a comfortable environment ensuring complete privacy and respondents were provided with refreshments. At the end of interview, each respondent was dropped back to his residence. The data was entered by two different Data Entry Assistants and cross-checked for internal consistency and validity.
SPSS version was used for analysis. Demographic Characteristics : The demographic characteristics of study population are given in Table The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 55 years. The majority of them More than two third hijras The maximum educational attainment was matric i. The mother tongue of One hundred fifty four unmarried hijras were asked about their current living arrangements. Forty two hijras, who were living with a regular partner in non-marital union, were asked about the sex of their partner. Seventeen percent did not answer.
Only one person 0. Forty one hijras married to women were asked about the. Three respondents refused to answer the question and two did not have any. The of children among remaining 36 married hijras ranged from 1 to 7 children. The of years in sex work ranged from less than 1 to The mean duration was More than half of the respondents Risk Behaviours : The mean age at first sexual intercourse was Nearly seventy percent respondents Forty three respondents The of clients asking for oral sex ranged from one to Eleven respondents 5. Majority of them Their ranged from one to five.
Majority of them were friends Place of soliciting clients : In nearly half of the cases Functions, where the hjras had gone to perform were the next common source of getting their clients Buying Sex : During the last one month, 19 hijras 9. In all cases, hijras served as receptive partners. No condom was used. Condom Use : When shown a condom, ninety percent of respondents were able to recognize a condom. Nearly a quarter of them Only 0.
Two third of them did not specify the source of condom supply. The most common source Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections: More than one quarter third of the respondents Penile Discharge was mentioned by only 4.
Nearly half Only 2. Nearly one fifth Similarly Three major reasons for considering themselves to be at risk were high risk job Since transmission of HIV is primarily sexual, it is important to look at all male sexual practices and evaluate the level of risks that are being taken. It cannot be assumed that the patterns of male to male sexual encounters fall into 'heterosexual or homosexual' binary division that is often assumed.
Anecdotal evidence indicates that sexual activity between men occurs relatively frequently in boys' hostels and jails; additionally, research suggests that sex between men is often practiced among long distance truck drivers.Private sex pakistan
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