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A synthetic substance. Normally seen as a white powder, it acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system CNS. First manufactured in Japan inmethamphetamine has some limited therapeutic use, but most is manufactured in clandestine laboratories, particularly in the USA and the Far East.
It is under international control and closely related to amphetamine. Methamphetamine CAS is a member of the phenethylamine family, which includes a range of substances that may be stimulantsentactogens or hallucinogens. Molecular formula: C 10 H 15 N Molecular weight: Methamphetamine base is a colourless volatile oil insoluble in water.
The most common salt is the hydrochloride CASwhich occurs as a white or off-white powder or as crystals soluble in water. Illicit products mostly consist of powders, but the pure crystalline hydrochloride is known as 'ice'. Tablets containing methamphetamine may carry logos similar to those seen on MDMA and other ecstasy tablets. Methamphetamine is a CNS stimulant that causes hypertension and tachycardia with feelings of increased confidence, sociability and energy.
It suppresses appetite and fatigue and le to insomnia. Following oral use, the effects usually start within 30 minutes and last for many hours. Later, users may feel irritable, restless, anxious, depressed and lethargic. It increases the activity of the noradrenergic and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Methamphetamine has higher potency than amphetaminebut in uncontrolled situations the effects are almost indistinguishable.
The S -isomer has greater activity than the R -isomer. The therapeutic dose of the S -isomer is up to 25 mg orally. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and maximum plasma levels are in the range 0. The plasma half-life is about nine hours. The major metabolites include 4-hydroxymethamphetamine and amphetamine. Fatalities directly attributed to methamphetamine are rare.
In most fatal poisonings the blood concentration is above 0. Analysis of methamphetamine in urine is confounded because it is a metabolite of certain medicinal products e.
Acute intoxication causes serious cardiovascular disturbances as well as behavioural problems that include agitation, confusion, paranoia, impulsivity and violence. Chronic use of methamphetamine causes neurochemical and neuroanatomical changes.
Dependence — as shown by increased tolerance — in deficits in memory and in decision-making and verbal reasoning. Some of the symptoms resemble those of paranoid schizophrenia. These effects may outlast drug use, although often they resolve eventually. Injection of methamphetamine carries the same viral infection hazards e. HIV and hepatitis as are found with other injectable drugs such as heroin.
When methamphetamine is smoked it reaches the brain much more quickly. Drugs which are smokable e.
The S -enantiomer is most commonly produced by reduction of l -ephedrine, i. Both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are commercially available and are used in certain medicinal products. Ephedrine may also be extracted from the plant Ephedra vulgaris L. Both the Leuckart route and reductive amination e.
The synthetic route used may be identified by impurity profiling. Methamphetamine may be ingested, snorted and, less commonly, injected or smoked. Unlike the sulfate salt of amphetaminemethamphetamine hydrochloride, particularly the crystalline form iceis sufficiently volatile to be smoked. When ingested, a dose may vary from several tens to several hundreds of milligrams depending on the purity and the isomeric composition.
In the United Kingdom and some other countries, the name used in drugs legislation is methylamphetamine. Other commonly used chemical names include N -methylamphetamine, 1-phenylmethylaminopropane, phenyliospropylmethylamine and desoxyephedrine. Methamphetamine, as the N -methyl derivative of amphetamineis sometimes included with amphetamine and other less common substances e. The Simon test for secondary amines produces a blue coloration that will distinguish methamphetamine from primary amine such as amphetamine red coloration.
Identification by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry can be improved by N -derivatisation. The racemate a mixture of the R- and S -stereoisomers is also listed in the same Schedule, but the R -enantiomer is not separately identified in the Convention.
Methamphetamine has occasional therapeutic use in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Methamphetamine from Afghanistan: als indicate that Europe should be better prepared September Prison and drugs in Europe June Wastewater analysis and drugs — a European study May Methamphetamine developments in Iran April European drug markets size estimate December Cook, C. Hammer, M. Iversen, L. King, L. Clarke's analysis of drugs and poisons3rd edn, Vol. Moffat, A. Remberg, B. United NationsRecommended methods for the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials revised and updatedManual for Use by National Drug Testing LaboratoriesUnited Nations, New York.
Home Publications Drug profiles. Methamphetamine drug profile Methamphetamine drug profile. Chemistry Methamphetamine CAS is a member of the phenethylamine family, which includes a range of substances that may be stimulantsentactogens or hallucinogens. This report examines the relatively recent emergence of methamphetamine production in Afghanistan and identifies actions that may be taken in Europe to mitigate the risks.
The publication stresses the importance of increasing awareness on the issue among policymakers in Europe as well as among law This publication provides an overview of current knowledge and the latest developments in the field of drug use and prison in Europe. The report explores in depth the epidemiology of drug use and drug-related problems among the prison population, the available social and health service responses to Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm reduction interventions.
The project in question analysed wastewater in 82 European cities and towns to explore the drug-taking habits of those who live in them. The The study is based on interviews with Iranian drug treatment This paper provides an analysis of the available data that suggest that a methamphetamine industry is rapidly being established in Afghanistan. The analysis provided is based on information from key informants, documentary sources and the analysis of satellite imagery.
The paper also highlights an This t publication from the EMCDDA and Europol analyses the impact of the pandemic on the market for the main drug types cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, NPSincluding demand, production, trafficking and availability. This report includes estimates of the total size of the retail drug market in the European Union in for cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and MDMA.
Video: European Drug Report — highlights. At a glance — estimates of drug use in the European Union updated June Drug seizures at a glance, Infographics: Changes in the mean weekly amounts of methamphetamine residues from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between and Infographic: amphetamine, methamphetamine, seizures, price, purity in the EU, Infographic: of reported drug seizures, breakdown by drug, Infographic: drug law offences in the EU related to drug use or possession for use or drug supply: indexed trends and reported offences inCrystal meth weights measurements
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Methamphetamine drug profile